The traditions of thinking about international relations show that aggression and violence are not inevitable. The world of today – and tomorrow – needs a reasoned vision based on values and ethics that will create a new social awareness and reality and promote goodwill and harmony among members of the human race. In 2018, Sultan Qaboos of Oman formulated the Declaration of the Harmonious Human Community where people can nurture their sense of humanity and realize their hopes and aspirations for a world of dignity, peace, justice and progress. The contributors to this volume reflect on the Declaration, providing insights and clarifications on Sultan Qaboos’s thinking from a mainly Muslim perspective. Agreeing on the ethical dimension of foreign policymaking, they challenge the dominant paradigm among Western scholars and strengthen constructivist thinking about international relations proposing that there could be common ground for a global community based on norms and values.