This interdisciplinary work emphasizes the maritime dimensions of Oman’s past, as both archaeologists and historians delve into a variety of sources to unearth its rich history. It explores Oman’s long and enduring relationship with the sea, which has had a profound impact on its history. The inhabitants of Oman who sailed to Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley in the Bronze Age helped initiate the beginnings of long-distance maritime commerce. The frankincense trade that flourished in the Iron Age connected Oman with the larger western Indian Ocean and Greco-Roman worlds. With the coming of Islam, Oman became part of a much larger series of Islamic maritime networks that extended from East Africa to China, sailing across the seas carrying peoples, goods, and ideas. European maritime incursions such as the Portuguese invasions eventually fostered maritime trade with Europe, and the establishment of the Ya’rubid and Al Bu Sa’id maritime empires increased interaction with East Africa and later the Atlantic world. In the modern period, Oman has made the transition from a traditional dhow economy to a modern maritime system. In addition, the work addresses the diverse forms of watercraft and navigational practices utilized by Omanis to venture out into the sea. Collectively, it shows that the sea is intimately tied to Oman’s history.